Hasta la victoria siempre

Saturday, November 21, 2009

Egalitarism si creativitate

Egalitarismul sustinut pe acest blog propune impunerea unei limite maxime de castig financiar. O critica populara a acestei pozitii este ca astfel se loveste in motivatia oamenilor de a munci si, implicit, in progresul social, tehnologic, artistic: fara motivatia unui castig/profit financiar cat mai mare, cum ar putea societatea sa avanseze, cum ar mai putea fi oamenii motivati sa creeze, sa descopere si sa inventeze lucruri noi? 

Voi presupune aici, de dragul agumentului, ca ceea ce se numeste progres e dezirabil. Am aratat in postari precum „O privire sceptica asupra „progresului” sau „Progres economic si deteriorare sociala” ca progresul tehnologic si cel economic se pare ca nu au avut efectul scontat, nu au sporit substantial sau relevant fericirea umana. 

Cunoscutul John Zerzan scrie in acest sens ca:

„For what has progress meant, after all? Its promise began to realize itself, in many ways, from history's very beginning. With the emergence of agriculture and civilization commenced, for instance, the progressive destruction of nature; large regions of the Near East, Africa and Greece were rather quickly rendered desert wastelands. In terms of violence, the transformation from a mainly pacific and egalitarian gatherer-hunter mode to the violence of agriculture/civilization was rapid. "Revenge, feuds, warfare, and battle seem to emerge among, and to be typical of, domesticated peoples," according to Peter Wilson. And violence certainly has made progress along the way, needless to say, from state weapons of mega-death to the recent rise in outburst murders and serial killers. Disease itself is very nearly an invention of civilized life; every known degenerative illness is part of the toll of historical betterment. From the wholeness and sensual vitality of pre-history, to the present vista of endemic ill-health and mass psychic misery-more progress.”

Distrugerea ecosistemelor, violenta sociala, degenerarea fizica au insotit, in viziunea lui Zerzan progresul, viziune asemanatoare cu cea a unui alt ganditor cunoscut, Jared Diamond, de care am scris in O privire sceptica asupra progresului.

Trecand insa peste aceste observatii generale, putem raspunde punctual la critica de mai sus astfel. In primul rand, nu e deloc clar ca in ultimele decenii, in tarile capitaliste, unde teoretic inventatorii si creatorii pot castiga sume nelimitate de bani, au aparut inventii si acte de creatie substantiale.

Astfel, in The Myth of Technological Progress, Scott Locklin scrie:

„What was technological life like 50 years ago? 50 years ago was 1959. The world of 1959 is pretty much the same world we live in today technologically speaking. This is a vaguely horrifying fact which is little appreciated. In 1959, we had computers, international telephony, advanced programming languages like Lisp, which remains the most advanced programming language, routine commercial jet flight, atomic power, internal combustion engines about the same as modern ones, supersonic fighter planes, television and the transistor.”

Asadar, de cinci decenii, lumea capitalista a fost incapabila de a mai inventa ceva relevant. Iata asadar ca motivatiile financiare puternice nu garanteaza sub nicio forma stimularea creativitatii. Alfred Nordmann concura, subliniind si futilitatea noilor progrese stiintifice:

„I’d argue that I have seen less technological progress than my parents did, let alone my grandparents. Born in 1956, I can testify primarily to the development of the information age, fueled by the doubling of computing power every 18 to 24 months, as described by Moore’s Law. The birth-control pill and other reproductive technologies have had an equally profound impact, on the culture if not the economy, but they are not developing at an accelerating speed. Beyond that, I saw men walk on the moon, with little to come of it, and I am surrounded by bio- and nanotechnologies that so far haven’t affected my life at all. Medical research has developed treatments that make a difference in our lives, particularly at the end of them. But despite daily announcements of one breakthrough or another, morbidity and mortality from cancer and stroke continue practically unabated, even in developed countries.”

Se poate raspunde ca aceasta seceta de inventii noi relevante din ultimii 50 de ani se explica prin aceea ca deja omenirea nu mai are nevoie de noi avansuri semnificative in domenii precum constructiile, informatica, transporturile, comunicatiile, entertainment-ul. Este evident insa ca in acest caz, insa critica de mai sus pica: de ce sa mai acuzam egalitarismul ca nu duce la noi inventii si progres tehnologic cand acesta practic nici nu mai sunt de dorit?

In al doilea rand insa, problema principala cu critica egalitarismului de la care am pornit este ca ignora esenta actului inovator. Inovatiile, descoperirile, creatiile semnificative pornesc de la pasiunea pentru un anumit domeniu al persoanei creatorului. Nu banii, care sunt o motivatie exterioara, ci interesul interior, personal, al inovatorului, este adevaratul motor al innoirilor.

La termenul invention, enciclopedia wikipedia noteaza:

„Play can lead to invention. Childhood curiosity, experimentation and imagination can develop one's play instinct--an inner need according to Carl Jung. Inventors feel the need to play with things that interest them, to explore, and this internal drive brings about novel creations. Inventing comes straight from the heart, it's a passion. "I never did a day's work in my life, it was all fun". Thomas A. Edison. Inventing can also be an obsession.”

Albert Einstein rezuma perfect cand spune: „The state of mind which enables a man to do work of this kind (inventing) is akin to that of the religious worshiper or the lover; the daily effort comes from no deliberate intention or program, but straight from the heart".

Ca dovada ca geniul creator nu are nevoie de stimulente exterioare pentru a-si desavarsi creatia este chiar numarul imens de inventatori care au trait si murit saraci.

Huberman and Sweezy, in "Introduction to Socialism," Monthly Review, noteaza:

„Look at these names: Remington, Underwood, Corona, Sholes. You recognize three of them immediately as successful typewriter manufacturers. Who was the fourth, Mr. Christopher Sholes? He was the inventor of the typewriter. Did his brain child bring him the fortune it brought to Remington, Underwood, or Corona? It did not. He sold his rights to the Remingtons for $12,000. Was profit Sholes’ incentive? Not according to his biographer: "He seldom thought of money, and, in fact, said he did not like to make it because it was too much bother. For this reason he paid little attention to business matters." Sholes was only one of thousands of inventors and scientists who are always so absorbed in their creative work that they "seldom thought of money."”

Sholes, inventatorul masinii de scris, a dat omenirii aceasta ustensila ce a facut istorie fara insa a fi motivat de bani, pe care, ce-i drept, i-au facut afaceristii capitalisti de pe urma lui.

Louis Chevrolet, Alfred Vail (inventatorul codului Morse), Charles Goodyear (inventatorul cauciucului vulcanizat), Nikola Tesla (peste 800 de patente), Thomas Edison, Jan Ernst Matzeliger, Roger Bacon (inventatorul lupei), etc. se alatura multor altor nume din domeniul artistic ca Mozart, Cervantes, Van Gogh, Nietzsche, Eminescu etc. care au murit in saracie si au fost asa de obicei si in timpul vietii. 

Cum vom raspunde deci, pe scurt, pretentiei ca egalitarismul nu ar stimula inovatia, creativitatea si progresul material si spiritual al omenirii?

1.     1. Nu este clar ca progresul material este dezirabil. 2. In statele capitaliste nu s-a mai inventat nimic relevant de 50 de ani. 3. Nu e clar ca mai avem nevoie de inventii in numeroase domenii cheie (mai degraba distribuirea roadelor acestor inventii e problema). 4. Actul creator este intrinesc, fiind motivat din interior, si nu financiar. 5. Nenumaratele exemple de creatori de geniu din toate domeniile dovedesc ca inovatia si progresul se pot realiza, si inca la cel mai inalt nivel, si fara stimulente financiare.

3 comments:

pai mei said...

Albert Einstein, si "a gandi cu inima" :

A Hopi Indian named Sun Chief said:
"I had learned many English words and could recite part of the Ten Commandments. I knew how to sleep on a bed, pray to Jesus, comb my hair, eat with a knife and fork, and use a toilet. ... I had also learned that a person thinks with his head instead of his heart ".

"When Carl Jung, the great psychoanalyst, went to Taos Peublo in New Mexico in 1925, he met the chief of the native people, Ochwiay Biano. Biano told Jung that according to his people, the Whites were 'mad'-uneasy, restless, always wanting something.

Jung asked him why he thought they were mad, and the chief replied that it was because they thought with their heads, a sure sign of mental illness among his tribe. Jung asked him how he thought and he pointed to his heart. The response plunged Jung into a deep introspection that enabled him to see his race from outside himself and realize how much of the race's character was within him."

Si din "Micul Print":
"The men where you live," said the little prince, "raise five thousand roses in the same garden−− and they do not find in it what they are looking for."
"They do not find it," I replied. "And yet what they are looking for could be found in one single rose, or in a little water."
"Yes, that is true," I said. And the little prince added: "But the eyes are blind. One must look with the heart..."

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stan said...

go to north korea , cuba , china . there people are equal...you are full of shit..