Hasta la victoria siempre

Thursday, April 16, 2009

Promovare in cariera vs Downshifting

Spre diferenta de adeptii downshiftingului, filosofie ce promoveaza un stil de viata axat pe placerile simple, pe relaxare si activitati de timp liber, multi considera ca o viata activa, centrata pe ascensiunea sociala si imbogatirea materiala este cheia fericirii.
Vom vedea acum ca ascensiunea pe scara sociala, sub foma promovarii la locul de munca, nu numai ca nu sporeste fericirea, dar determina o scadere a sanatatii mentale si fizice.
Aceasta este concluzia studiului cu titlul “Do People Become Healthier after Being Promoted”, realizat de cercetatorii Chris Boyce si Andrew Oswald de la Universitatea din Warwick. Mai exact, cei doi arata ca promovarea, cresterea in cariera, duce la o deteriorare a sanatatii mentale de aproximativ 10% si la rarirea vizitelor la medic.
Intr-o prezentare a studiului scrie:

„A long-held assumption by researchers is that an improvement to a person’s job status, through a promotion, will directly result in better health due to an increased sense of life control and self-worth.
The researchers tested this. They drew upon the British Household Panel Survey data set, collected annually between 1991 and 2005, with information on approximately 1000 individual promotions. They found no evidence of improved physical health after promotion – nor that self-assessed feelings of health declined.
What they did find, however, was significantly greater mental strain. After a job promotion, there was on average a 10% decrease in people’s mental health measured in a standardized way across the British population. Intriguingly, those promoted at work also reported on average a 20% fall in their visits to a Doctor following their promotion. On first sight this drop in Doctor visits does not match the lack of change in the reported health of promoted individuals. But the increased stress levels of promoted workers may provide an explanation -- part of the stress on promoted people may be more constraints on their time and they simply have less time to visit a doctor.
University of Warwick researcher Chris Boyce said:
“Getting a promotion at work is not as great as many people think. Our research finds that the mental health of managers typically deteriorates after a job promotion, and in a way that goes beyond merely a short-term change. There are no indications of any health improvements for promoted people other than reduced attendance at GP surgeries, which may itself be something to worry about rather than celebrate.”

In textul studiului, cei autorii conclud: „We cannot find persuasive evidence that promotion improves a person’shealth. We conclude in the full sample that after being promoted the mental health ofmanagers typically deteriorates, and in a way that goes beyond merely a short-termchange.” De remarcat si faptul ca venitul crescut ce acompaniaza de obicei o promotie nu schimba cu nimic datele problemei: „Does inclusion of income change anything? In the main analysis, it was excluded, since an income rise is likely to accompany a promotion. The introduction of income, in Table 10, adds almost nothing to the effect of the promoted dummy.”

Wednesday, April 1, 2009

Unde cap nu e, e consumerism


Consumerismul poate fi explicat in buna masura printr-un calcul superficial si eronat al consumatorilor. Anume ca satisfactia oferita de un anume produs cumparat va fi mai longeviva decat este in realitate. Daca ne-am gandi catusi de putin, vom realiza ca de cele mai multe ori, un obiect achizitionat va ajunge in timp sa ne plictiseasca ori, in cel mai bun caz, sa nu ne ofere decat foarte putin din multumirea initiala, de dupa momentul cumpararii. Ca este asa, e dovedit de studiul "Anticipating Adaptation to Products", realizat de trei cercetatori de la Yale University, Jing Wang, Nathan Novemsky si Ravi Dhar, ce urmeaza sa fie publicat in laugust 2009 in Journal of Consumer Research.

Dintr-o prezentare pe scurt a studiului, publicata de University of Chicago Press, aflam:

"That fancy iPod or car with a sunroof might seem appealing when you’re about to
buy it, but chances are the enjoyment will be short-lived. According to a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research, enjoyment of products decreases over time, but people are not often aware of this process.
Authors Jing Wang (Singapore Management University), Nathan Novemsky, and Ravi Dhar (both Yale University), examine why predictions of future product enjoyment don’t tend to match reality. “We show that consumers overestimate the long-term enjoyment from various products including toys, cars, stereos, iPods, and digital cameras when making a purchase decision, even though when asked directly, they seem to know that they will enjoy these products less over time,” write the authors.
In one experiment, participants were asked to make a choice between two cars: a base model and the same care with a sunroof for an additional $900. “Before choosing a car, one group predicted how much they would enjoy the sunroof several months after purchase, while another predicted enjoyment at two points, both immediately after purchase and several months later, to simulate the progression of time,” write the authors. “The latter group accurately expected their enjoyment of the sunroof to diminish over time, while the former group overestimated their enjoyment level for the sunroof several months after purchase.”
It seems when people pay attention to how long they will use a product and think about the way their enjoyment will change over time, preferences shift from higher-priced items with extra features to cheaper, simpler options. In the sunroof study, only 26 percent of the participants who thought about their enjoyment over the duration of time wanted to buy the car with the sunroof, while 61 percent of the other participants said they would purchase it. “These findings may help explain why people overspend on frivolous items or expensive extra product features whose enjoyment will be short-lived,” the authors write."

Asadar, simplul act de a ne gandi realist la durata folosirii unui anumit produs si la satisfactia pe care ne-o va da el in timp e suficienta incat sa reduca drastic impulsurile consumeriste. Intr-adevar, doar 26% dintre cei care au luat in calcul existenta adaptarii hedonice au cumparat produsul), pe cand dintre cei care nu s-au gandit la acest aspect, peste 60% au efectuat achizitia. Consumerismul dovedeste asadar un calcul personal extrem de limitat si superficial, daca nu chiar o lipsa completa de gandire.

Dupa cum scriu cei trei cercetatori in introducerea studiului lor,

"Since many consumer products deliver their utility over time, the decision to purchase such products often depends on predictions of future product enjoyment. The present research shows that consumers often fail to predict hedonic adaptation to products and explores the antecedents and consequences of this prediction error. We demonstrate that the failure to predict diminishing enjoyment with a product arises because of a failure to spontaneously consider adaptation and apply correct intuitive beliefs about adaptation."