Pe scurt, individualistii, cei care sunt mai bine adaptati la realitatile societatii capitaliste, sunt competitivi, putin interesati de bine comun si armonia sociala, pe cand colectivistii sunt mai inclinati spre cooperare, evitarea conflictelor si pastrarea armoniei de grup. Mai departe, cei doi autori anticipeaza, inainte de studiul-experimental propriu-zis, faptul ca atitudinea colectivista este favorabila fericirii personale si a ceea ce ei numesc „affective well-being”, adica buna-starea afectiva:
„With this in mind, we suggest that in a (...) collectivistic culture, collectivistic employees experience greater AWB than do the individualistic ones. One possible reason would be that collectivistic employees adopt more pro-social and interpersonal helping behaviors. Working in a collectivistic culture, they can expect reciprocity from those people they help to therefore cooperate, thus experiencing the sense of gratitude and such positive emotions as joy, comfort and pleasure. On the contrary, because they are less prone to cooperate, to help and to nurture interpersonal harmony, individualists are less likely to receive these reciprocal acts. Collectivists, in comparison with individualists, are more able to “absorb” the available caring from other people in collectivistic contexts, thus being more able to cope with the stress and to experience greater personal well-being.”
Asadar, oamenii invatati sa lucreze in echipa si sa puna binele general deasupra celui personal au o atitudine mai prietenoasa, mai apropiata fata de semenii lor, bucurandu-se, drept urmare, de un tratament afectiv pozitiv din partea celorlalti, ceea ce le sporeste buna-starea afectiva, bucuria si siguranta personale. Spiritul tovarasesc care apare in grupurile si societatile dominate de mentalitatea colectivista ajuta la randul sau la imbunatatirea starii subiective a fiecaruia, pe cand aparitia individualismului deterioreaza intreaga atmosfera de grup si echipa:
„It is also likely that collectivist employees experience greater AWB when they perceive their organizational climates as rich in spirit of camaraderie. This may occur because they gain access to the “resources” they value, namely interpersonal harmony, helping and cooperating behaviors, and positive relationships with the leaders. Feeling that cooperation is valued and promoted, experiencing the gratitude of receiving reciprocal reactions from other organizational members, and perceiving a climate of interpersonal harmony, it is likely that they feel happy cooperating with other employees. On the contrary, when they sense that they are working in climates poor in the spirit of camaraderie, a “misfit” may occur between organizational climate and their individual values. It is possible that they retract from adopting cooperative behaviors, due to the fear that free riders will emerge and benefit from cooperation without making sufficient cooperative contributions. By avoiding cooperation and not helping others, they go against their values and beliefs, thus feeling frustration, discomfort, displeasure and other negative emotions. If they “risk” helping and cooperating, they can feel “victims” of others’ opportunistic behavior, thus experiencing lower self-esteem which, in turn, decreases PWB. At the very least, it is unlikely that they feel as happy as when working in more harmonious interpersonal climates.”
Concluzia studiului intreprins de Arménio Rego si Miguel P. Cunha este evidenta:„Our findings suggest that employees who express preferences for group work (i.e. collectivists) are happier than those who have solitary work preferences. (...) the evidence contradicts literature showing that individualists tend to experience greater personal well-being and points out the plausibility of our previous reasoning: when working in a collectivistic culture, collectivists are more able to access the social and emotional resources they value and feel aligned with their environment, thus experiencing greater affective well-being.
For organizations, this is a relevant finding. Promoting employees’ PWB is good in itself, but is also a way of leveraging performance. According to the broaden-and-build model, happier employees are more easily able to “broaden-and-build” themselves, becoming more creative, resilient, socially connected, physically and mentally healthy, and more productive. Emotions are contagious, which means that the positive emotions of some individuals may spill over to the rest of the team, thus improving interpersonal cooperation, contributing to “broaden-and-build” employees’ strengths (and not “narrow-and-destroy” themselves), and increasing employee and group performance.
Our findings also indicate that the perceptions of spirit of camaraderie have direct and moderating effects on AWB. We start by discussing the direct effects. Individuals who perceive their organizations as richer in spirit of camaraderie report higher comfort, enthusiasm, pleasure and placidity.”
Un climat social caracterizat de colectivism si spirit tovarasesc este unul net superior din punct de vedere al bunastarii personale si eficientei muncii. Sa respingem deci gandirea ingusta, individualisto-egoista promovata de capitalism, inamicul fericirii fara bani, si sa incepem sa punem binele societatii mai presus de cel personal, in acest fel avand inclusiv fiecare dintre noi mai mult de castigat.